The preamble of India is a brief introduction of Indian Constitution that is based on the Objective Resoultion drafted and moved by the Pandit Nehru and adopted by the constituent assembly on 26 November 1949.
It came into effect on 26 January 1950 since then the day is celebrated as Republic day in India.
The preamble to the Indian Constitution
The preamble of Indian Constitution describe the purpose, principles and source of the Constitution of India. The Preamble also defines the hopes and aspirations of the people and ideals before our nation in clear words.
It is considered the heart and soul of the Constitution. The Preamble is also reffered to preface to the Indian Consitution.
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION
Source of the Constitution
” We, The people of India ” represent that the constitution is made by and for the Indian and not given to them by any outside power.
In preamble it is clearly mentioned that India Constitution recognizes equality, liberty and fraternity as the principles of life which can not be divorced from each other in any way.
B. R. Ambedkar said that
Without equality, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many. Equality without liberty would kill individual initiative. Without fraternity, liberty and equality could not become a natural course of things.
Nature of Indian state
1. Sovereign : This word suggest that India is an Independent state. It is free from the control of any foreign power and also has it’s own government which is elected directly by the people who makes law that govern the country. It can either acquire a foreign territory or cede a part of its territory in favour of a foreign state. No external power can dictate the government of India.
2. Socialist : The word ” Socialism ” in Indian Preamble means democratic socialism where means of production and distribution are owned by the State. But, India adopted ” Mixed Economy ” where both public and private sectors exists side by side. Indian socialism is comprise both Marxism and Gandhism that has aim to end poverty, ignorance, diseases and inequality of opportunity.
3. Secular : India is secular state that is clearly envisaged in the Preamble. The state has no religion of its own that mean people in India has freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practice and propagate the religion of their choice.
( This term was added by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act of 1976 )
4. Democratic : This word has been used in the Preamble in very broader way that Government gets its authority from the will of the people. Ruler are also elected by the people and are responsible to people of India.
The Constitution of India provides representative parliamentary democracy under which the executive is responsible to the legislature for all its policies and actions.
5. Republic : Democracy is of two categories that are monarchy and republic. In a monarchy, head of the state who comes into office through succession like Britain Queen and enjoys a hereditary position whereas in republic, head of the state is alway elected directly or indirectly for a fixed period like USA.
Thus President of India is elected by an electoral college for a term of five years. The post of the President Of India is not hereditary.
6. Justice : The term “justice” in the preamble of India enfold three form of justice that are social, economic and political assured through provision of Directive Principles and Fundamental Rights.
Social justice means that society gets every right without any descrimination on grounds of caste, creed, color, religion, gender or place of birth.
Economic Justice means no discrimination between man and woman on the basis of income, wealth and economic status.
Political Justice means fair opportunities to the people for participation in the political process.
7. Liberty : The Preamble of India has granted liberty that mean freedom to think, express, belief, worship, faith and action. People of India has freedom as long as it’s exercised within the constitutional limit and are enforceable in court of law, in case of violation.
8. Equality : This word “Equality” envisages that all are equal before the law. Every citizen of India has equal right to have adequate opportunities without any discrimination.
So, Preamble secured equality of status and opportunity for all citizens of India.
9. Fraternity : Fraternity means a feeling of brotherhood and of belonging among it’s people. The Constitution of India provided some Fundamental Duties to people which they shall do to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic, regional or sectional diversities.
Adoption of Constitution of India
The aspiration and Idea of the people of India are described in the preamble. It is considered as soul of the constitution of India. It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949.
The Indian Constitution came into effect with with important articles that are 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 60, 324, 366, 367, 379, 380, 388, 391, 392, 393 and 394 on 26 January 1950.